This article is part of Computerworld Australia's NBN 101 series, in which we take a look at the arguments surrounding the fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) network, and dissect them one by one. The articles are meant to be an overview of the debates central to the National Broadband Network (NBN) to give you a grounding as more and more media outlets and commentators speak out on the project. We encourage people to take the discussion further in the comments section.
In our first article we took a look at how Australia’s NBN plan compares to the rest of the world and the statistics and graphs from the OECD, and then we strapped in for a tour of speeds. This time we take a look at wireless technologies versus fibre optic.
The question I'm often asked is: why don't we just do it all with wireless? NBN Co chief executive officer, Mike Quigley
Of the alternatives offered by critics of the National Broadband Network (NBN), one of the more interesting options has been the notion of providing all Australians with wireless of one type or another. NBN Co CEO, Mike Quigley, felt necessary to remark on it recently, and proceeded to defend why the NBN, as it currently stands, will not use the technologies.
The alternative has garnered support from the Computerworld Australia community, as well as analysts. It also underpinned the failed OPEL project, and may form a major part of the Liberals' broadband scheme, if they ever formulate one.
It's fair to say not all are convinced the prescribed technologies are the best fit for the job. Whether it's NBN Mark I (a fibre-to-the-node or VDSL network) using copper for last mile access, or a nationwide wireless network, there are alternatives to the NBN that each have their benefits and disadvantages when compared to fibre. Some even continue to champion ADSL2+ as a future-proof Internet access method - why bother building an entirely new network when current technology is yet to reach 90 per cent market saturation?
To recap, the Federal Government's proposed broadband network would see 90 to 93 per cent of Australians receive committed speeds of 100Mbps over a fibre-to-the-home (FTTH) network. Of the roughly ten per cent remaining homes, seven per cent would receive wireless access and the remaining three per cent of the population could connect via satellite, both access points meant to be working at speeds of at least 12Mbps.
No matter how the NBN eventuates, then, wireless still plays a vital part; it's necessary to deliver Internet to those homes too rural and too expensive to run fibre to.
Quigley himself confessed he was a "big fan of wireless and mobile" and said that wireless broadband is a big part of Australia's broadband future. But can existing and/or future technologies ultimately replace fixed broadband? Let's have a look at the arguments.
Wireless as it stands
Wireless broadband already plays a significant part of the telecommunications market in Australia. According to the latest figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), wireless broadband subscribers make up 2.8 million of the total 8.2 million broadband subscribers. It's important to note here that the ABS only takes dongles into account at this stage - not smartphones - and doesn't distinguish those users who have multiple connections. However, considering that half of the total 25 million Australian mobile subscriptions in June 2009 were made up of 3G-capable devices, it's likely that the number of connections to the Internet on mobile phones will surpass that of fixed broadband, if it hasn't already.
With Telstra and competing providers pouring an increasing amount of money into developing faster 3G and HSPA networks, it doesn't look like wireless is going anywhere anytime soon.
When it comes to building a national, open access broadband network with minimum committed speeds, though, wireless broadband becomes fraught with issues. The more users you have on a given wireless broadband network, the more base stations and back-end infrastructure a service provider has to implement to keep providing the same quality of service. According to Quigley, Australia would have to expand its current base of 16,000 mobile cell sites to around 80,000 in order to deliver a near-equivalent broadband experience to the proposed NBN.
That doesn't even take into account speed. Telstra's fastest mobile broadband network currently works at a theoretical peak of 42Mbps in lab tests, with real world speeds of up to 16Mbps with the right hardware. In premium conditions, Telstra's dual carrier HSPA network could technically be a candidate for the wireless portion of the existing NBN plan. But given that aspect of the rollout is made up of rural Australian communities it is unlikely a 12Mbps minimum speed can be guaranteed.
Next generation, "4G" technologies such as WiMAX and LTE provide better hope of comparable speeds and coverage, but can they really be fit out for an NBN?
*Note: We will be addressing the uptake and demand argument around whether people will choose wireless over fixed line services in a future article. This article focuses on the technology and their ability to deliver NBN goals.
The case for WiMAX
WiMAX has, so far, been a bit of a non-starter in Australia. Though several Internet service providers (ISP) are expanding their respective WiMAX networks, the technology has suffered from a fractured upgrade path that has essentially split it into three different standards: 802.16d, 802.16e and 802.16m. Like 802.11 WiFi, these different industry certifications provide different capabilities and speeds, but by the same token require different hardware and often significant upgrades to existing infrastructure by both operator and end-user.
The earliest version, 802.16d, is currently available in Australia through Unwired in Sydney and Melbourne, and Internode in South Australia, with varied speeds of between 256Kbps and a theoretical 9Mbps. The service was marketed heavily by Unwired - now owned by Seven Group - several years ago as a fixed wireless broadband access service dedicated for people on the move or those without access to ADSL services. However, slow speeds and patchy coverage led to slow uptake. The Seven Group has since put out a different WiMAX-based offering (802.16e) under the vividwireless brand earlier this year.
vividwireless has generated the most attention for 802.16e WiMAX so far when it launched in March with 150 WiMAX base stations from Huawei scattered throughout Perth. The network launched claiming peak speeds of 20Mbps but promptly dropped the figure and does not currently claim or promise any specific average or peak speeds to customers. However, users have reported an average speed of 9.53Mbps through speedtest.net, which the service provider's chief executive officer, Martin Mercer, recently championed at a 4G conference in Sydney as a success that provided a "superior experience to ADSL2+".
South Australian ISP, Adam Internet, uses 802.16e WiMAX to fill in gaps on the outer fringes of Adelaide where residents and small businesses are unable to receive ADSL2+ services, as part of the Federal Government's Australian Broadband Guarantee. At time of writing, 18 of the total 62 communities targeted by Adam Internet for WiMAX base stations are able to sign up to the service, with the remainder of the areas slated for connection before the end of the year. The service provider artificially caps the maximum WiMAX speed at 12Mbps downstream, but has reported that users experience an average of 11Mbps.
Another notable WiMAX experiment is currently under construction by NSW energy utility, EnergyAustralia. The retailer is in the process of rolling out 140 802.16e WiMAX base stations across NSW, with 20 expected to go into full operation soon as part of the Federal Government's $100 million three-year Smart Grid, Smart Cities trial. The wireless network works off 15MHz worth of spectrum leased from Seven Group's Wireless Broadband Australia (WBA) - which also owns vividwireless' spectrum in Perth - and is designed to connect to WiMAX-capable smart meters in homes as well as up to 3000 mobile field computers. While ambitious, the retailer has ruled out interests in signing up customers to the network, even if legislation allowing enterprises to become retail service providers (RSP) were to eventuate.
Put simply, WiMAX as it currently stands in Australia, is untenable as a nation-wide broadband network, and certainly isn't capable of delivering the committed 100Mbps speeds that the Federal Government proposes to deliver for at least 90 per cent of Australians.
Unlike optic fibre-based network technologies, the WiMAX technology’s greatest asset is also yet to make a strong appearance in commercial reality. 802.16m WiMAX, otherwise known as "WiMAX 2", purports to deliver peak speeds of 300Mbps and lower latency than previous generations to make applications like Voice over IP (VoIP) easier to deliver over the network. However, the specification is yet to be finalised and, while reports earlier this year pointed to 2011 as the beginning of the standard, the timeline has since been pushed back to 2012 according to Intel.
The WiMAX Forum says operators are able to co-locate WiMAX base station equipment within existing 3G towers, which means that telcos at least won't have to erect completely new towers if they choose to implement the technology. However, given that the technology is yet to be field-tested indicates that the upgrade path to WiMAX at a national level could potentially take even more time than currently slated for the NBN and, even then, 100Mbps on a completely even playing field for all users (the concept of ubiquity that is part of the NBN) are unlikely.